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LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN 



5^0.5 
FI 

V.39 
cop. 3 




NATURAL HISTORV, 
SURVEY 



3 FIELDIANA . ZOOLOGY 

Published hy 
CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM 

Volume 39 September 22, 1958 No. 16 

DESCRIPTIONS OF ABYSSAL BENTHIC 
FISHES FROM THE GULF OF MEXICO 

Marion Grey 

Associate, Division of Fishes 

The fishes reported here were all caught in a single bottom haul 
made by the personnel of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service 
research vessel Oregon in the Gulf of Mexico at Station 1303, 28° 47' N., 
87° 50' W., May 26, 1955, in 1150-1200 fathoms (2104-2194 meters). 
Some of the specimens have been reported but not described (Grey, 
1956). The collection consists of 72 specimens belonging to 7 fam- 
ilies, 14 genera, and 17 species. Eleven of the species, including two 
new forms, have not been known previously from the Gulf of Mexico 
and of these, seven were also unknown from the western Atlantic. 
Two of the genera are recorded from the western Atlantic for the first 
time, Grimatroctes Parr and Narcetes Alcock. 

HolotjTDes are deposited in the United States National Museum, 
other specimens in Chicago Natural History Museum. 

Family ALEPOCEPHALIDAE 
Alepocephalus productus Gill 

Alepocephalus productus Gill, 1883, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6: 256; Grey, 1956, 
Fieldiana, Zool., 36: 104 (complete synonymy). 

One specimen, standard length 360 mm. 

Description. — Dorsal rays 16; anal 17; pectoral 11; ventral 7. 
Lateral scale count ca. 70. The following measurements are in mil- 
limeters, the figures in parentheses representing the per cent of the 
standard length: Greatest depth 75? (20.8?); length of head 122 
(33.9); snout 33 (9.16); orbit 27.5 (7.65); interorbital width 19.5 
(5.42); tip of snout to ventral base ca. 187 (ca. 52.0), to dorsal origin 
ca. 255 (ca. 71.0), to ar^o|igin da. 257.5 (ca. 71.5); end of anal to 

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150 FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY, VOLUME 39 

base of middle caudal rays 62 (17.2) ; least depth of caudal peduncle 
28 (7.8); dorsal base 49 (13.6); anal base 51 (14.2). 

Specimen badly damaged around middle of body. Vent prob- 
ably just in front of anal fin, apparently a large prominent opening. 
Toothless maxillary reaching a vertical from anterior edge of eye. 
Lower jaw included, with a small symphyseal knob. Teeth small, 
uniserial, present on lower jaw, premaxillaries, and palatines. Pseu- 
dobranchiae present. Pyloric caecae 13. 

Color. — Body brown, head black. Peritoneum and linings of 
mouth and gill covers black. 

Remarks. — The M/V Oregon specimen differs from the eastern 
Atlantic example reported by Koefoed (1927, p. 38) only in having a 
slightly greater depth, but the damaged state of our specimen leaves 
its actual depth measurement-uncertain. In the type the depth was 
said to be nearly one-fourth of the total length. In the figure (Goode 
and Bean, 1895, fig. 46) it is between 4,7 and 4.8 times in the standard 
length, in the Oregon specimen 4.8 times, and in the example reported 
by Koefoed, 5.75 times. The length of the anal base of the type was 
only about three-quarters as long as the dorsal base, while in Koe- 
foed 's specimen and in the example from the Gulf of Mexico the anal 
is a millimeter or two longer than the dorsal. The type description 
stated that the head length is 35.5 per cent of the total length. In 
the figure it is contained in the standard length almost exactly three 
times (Oregon specimen 2.95, Koefoed's 2.9). 

Distribution. — A. productus has not been reported before from the 
Gulf of Mexico. The type was taken off the northern United States 
coast (ca. 39° N., 70° W.) in 2491 meters and one specimen has been 
recorded from the eastern Atlantic (ca. 35° N., 8° W.) in 2055 meters. 

Grimatroctes bullisi, new species. Figure 22. 

Holotype. — United States National Museum no. 159331, standard 
length 229 mm. 

Paratypes. — Three, standard lengths 183-203 mm. 

Description. — Counts are shown in Table 1. The following meas- 
urements are in millimeters, those of the holotype given first : Stand- 
ard length 229, 203, 203, 183; greatest depth 47, 45, 45, 39; head 
58.5, 57.5, 57.5, 50; snout 14.4, 12.5, 12.5, 11.5; orbit 20, 17, 20.5, 16; 
interorbital width 10, 10, 11, 6.5; upper jaw 28.8, 26, 29.5, 23.5; 
lower jaw 31, 29, 30, 27.5; tip of snout to pectoral base 64, 60, 62, 52, 
to ventral base 110.5, 99, 99, 89.5, to dorsal origin 134, 120, 114, 108, 






J^> . /. GREY: ABYSSAL BENTHIC FISHES 151 



5^ 

Xd/O^- -^ Table 1. — Counts and Proportions of Grimatroctes bullisi 

f Paratypes 

: Holotype 

Standard length 229 

Dorsal rays 17 

Anal rays 15-16 

Pectoral rays 12 

Ventral rays 8 

Caudal rays — 

Lat. line from upper edge gill opening ca. 64 a 

Per cent of standard length 

Depth 20.5 

Head 25.5 

Snout 6.3 

Orbit 8.75 

Interorbital width 4.36 

Upper jaw 12.6 

Lower jaw 13.5 

Tip of snout 

to pectoral base 27.9 

to ventral base 48 .3 

to dorsal origin 58 . 6 

to anal origin 68.6 

End of anal to base of middle caudal rays 18.5 

Ventral base to anal origin 17.0 

Least depth of caudal peduncle 8.5 

Ventral length 10.05 

Pectoral length 17.4 



to anal origin 157, 136, 141, 126; ventral base to anal origin 39, 36, 
34, 32; end of anal to base of middle caudal rays 42.5, 35.5, 36.5, 32; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 19.5, 21.5, 21.5, 17; length of pectoral 
fin 40, 39+, 49, 34.5; length of ventral fin 23, — , — , 21. 

Body compressed. Greatest depth between pectoral and ventral 
bases. Origin of dorsal fin nearer base of caudal than tip of snout; 
last dorsal ray split to base. Anal origin beneath latter half of dorsal 
fin; last ray split to base. Pectoral fin not quite reaching ventral 
base in holot3T3e, reaching just to or slightly past it in paratypes. 
Caudal rays 10+9, with 13 supplementary rays both above and be- 
low. Vent close to anal fin; a small anal papilla present on all speci- 
mens. Scales all fallen, pockets sometimes clear, about seven scales 
between lateral line and dorsal fin, about eight between lateral line 
and ventral bases. Bases of vertical fins fleshy, scaled. Head naked. 

Snout short, eye large. Nostrils close together, just in front of eye. 
Upper jaw reaching a vertical from end of pupil or slightly beyond. 
Lower jaw relatively shallow, without symphyseal knob. Teeth very 
small, conical, uniserial in both jaws (including maxillaries), and on 



203 


203 


183 


16 


15 


15 


16 


16 


16 


11 


11 


12 


8 


8 


8 


— 


— 


10+9 


. 64 


ca. 60 


ca. 64 


22.2 


22.2 


21.3 


28.4 


28.4 


27.3 


6.16 


6.16 


6.3 


8.9 


10.1 


8.75 


4.9 


5.4 


3.65 


12.8 


14.5 


12.8 


14.3 


14.8 


15.0 


29.5 


30.5 


28.4 


48.7 


48.7 


48.9 


59.0 


56.3 


59.0 


67.0 


69.5 


69.0 


17.5 


17.8 


17.5 


17.8 


16.7 


17.4 


8.6 


8.6 


9.3 


— 


— 


11.5 


19.2 


24.1 


18.8 



152 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY, VOLUME 39 








Fig. 22. Grimatroctes bullisi, new sp., holotype. Fins partly reconstructed 
from paratypes. 



palatines. Vomer with two teeth on each side. Pseudobranchiae 
present. 

One specimen examined internally, a female 203 mm. in standard 
length. Pyloric caecae 10. Ovaries filled with eggs of varying size, 
largest 2.6 mm. in diameter, yellow; smallest 1.5 mm. in diameter, 
pale. 

Color. — Body dark brown. Head darker, almost black. Linings 
of mouth and gill covers black. 

Remarks. — It is with reluctance that a new species is added to the 
genus Grimatroctes. However, although the four species assigned to 
the genus by Parr (1952, p. 266) are much alike in most respects, dis- 
tinguishing characters cannot be explained as other than specific at 
the present time (Table 2) . The specimens at hand are very similar 
to both G. microlepis (Giinther) and G. grimaldii (Zugmayer) from 
the eastern Atlantic. From microlepis, hullisi differs only in having 
somewhat larger scales, a few less pyloric caecae, a slightly deeper 
body and a slightly shorter snout. The Gulf specimens differ from 
grimaldii in the presence of teeth on the vomer, the number of rays 
in the dorsal and anal fins, and the longer and relatively more slender 
caudal peduncle. These two species also differ in the scale count of 
the lateral line but the scales must be about equal in size as the trans- 
verse count is almost identical. G. bullisi is perhaps most closely 
related to G. danae (Parr), from the eastern Pacific, but danae has a 
longer head, a larger eye, and a deeper caudal peduncle. G. zugmayeri 
(Fowler), from Celebes, differs from other species in its greater body 
depth and longer snout. 

The new species has been named for Mr. Harvey R. Bullis, Jr., 
to whom I owe the opportunity of studying this collection of fishes. 

The genus Grimatroctes has not previously been recorded from the 
western Atlantic. 



GREY: ABYSSAL BENTHIC FISHES 



168 



Table 2. — Counts and Proi>ortions of Species of the Genus Grimatroctes 
(Taken from the literature where indicated) 

microlepis grimaldii bullisi danae zugmayeri 

Giinther, Zugmayer, new sp. Parr, Fowler, 

1887 1911 1951 1934 

Dorsal rays 16 13 16-17 16 16 (17?) 

Anal rays 17 11 15-16 16 13(14?) 

Pectoral rays — 11 11-12 12 12 

Ventral rays 8 7 8 8 — 

Lateral line ca. 70 ca. 76 60-64 60-62 68? 

Transverse scale ro ws. . 9/12 8/8 7/8 16 7/7 

Gill-rakers 24+11 — 23+9, 23+10 — 

24+11 

Pyloric caecae 13 9 10 11 — 

Standard length 145 183-229 161 

Total length 264 — — — 235? 

Times in standard length 

Depth 6.25 6.0 4.6-4.9 — 4.3 

Head 3.6 3.5 3.5-3.9 ca.3.3 3.76 

Times in head 

Snout 3.9» 4.1 4.06-4.6 — ca. 3 + 

Orbit 3.0 2.9 2.8-3.4 — 3.0 

Pectoral fin ca. 1.6i ca. 1.7i 1.2-1.46 — 1.6» 

» From figure. 



Narcetes stomias (Gilbert). Figure 23. 

Bathyiroctes stomias Gilbert, 1890, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 13: 53. 

Bathytroctes stomias Goode and Bean, 1896, Ocean. Ichth., p. 40; Jordan and 
Evermann, 1896, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 47: 454. 

Narcetes stomias Townsend and Nichols, 1925, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
52: 10; Grey, 1956, Fieldiana, Zool., 36: 109. 

Narcetes pluriserialis Koefoed, 1927, Rep. Sci. Res. M. Sars No. Atl. Deep-sea 
Exp. 1910, 4, (1), p. 64. 

Two specimens, an adult female, standard length 426 mm., and 
an adult male, standard length 421 mm. 

Description. — Counts and proportions are shown in Table 3. The 
following measurements are in millimeters, those of the larger speci- 
men given first: Greatest depth 79, 78; length of head 132, 125; snout 
35, 34; orbit 21, 21; interorbital width at center of eye 31, 30.5; upper 
jaw 72.5, 70; tip of snout to ventral base 249, 244, to dorsal origin 
277, 284, to vent 300, 300, to anal origin 315, 312; end of anal to base 
of middle caudal rays 70, 79; least depth of caudal peduncle 34, 32; 
dorsal base 64.5, 60.5; anal base 45, 39.5. 

Greatest depth close behind pectoral base. Anal origin just be- 
hind a vertical from middle of dorsal. Vent rather large, close to anal 



154 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY, VOLUME 39 



Table 3. — Counts and Proportions of Narcetes stomias 
(Taken from the literature where indicated) 

Koefoed, Koefoed, Oregon Oregon 

1927 1927 female male 

Dorsal rays 18 18 18 17 

Anal rays 15 16 15 15 

Pectoral rays 10 11 11-12? 11 

Ventral rays 9 9 9 9 

Lateral line 60-70 60-70 ca. 55 ca. 55 

Scales above lateral line ca. 100 ca. 100 — — 

Standard length 490 430 426 421 

Per cent of standard length 

Depth 19.4 19.7 18.5 18.5 

Head 27.6 29.5 31.0 29.7 

Snout 7.9 8.8 8.2 8.1 

Orbit (4.5 4.4 4.9 5.0 

Interorb. width at center of eye. . ^.7 7.2 7.3 7.2 

Upper jaw — — 17.0 16.6 

Tip of snout 

to ventral origin 55.0 56.0 58.5 58.0 

to dorsal origin 63.0 66.0 65.0 67.5 

to vent 68.0 69.5 70.5 71.3 

to anal origin 70.5 70.2 74.0 74.2 

Dorsal base 13.6 13.9 15.1 14.4 

Anal base 9.8 10.7 10.5 9.4 

End anal to base middle C rays . 19.8 18.8 16.4 18.8 

Least depth of caudal peduncle. . 6.9 7.4 7.9 7.6 



Koefoed, 

1927 

17 

16 

11 

9 

60-70 

ca. 100 

408 



19.0 

30.0 

8.9 

4.4 

6.6 



56.0 
61.6 
67.5 
70.0 
17.4 
12.5 
18.3 
8.7 



fin, with a minute papilla posteriorly in the male but not in the fe- 
male. Scales all fallen except a few anteriorly on lateral line and one, 
firmly attached, above pectoral base. Figure 23 indicates pattern of 
scale pockets, exact count impossible. 

Snout prominent. Posterior nostril a vertical slit in front of eye, 
anterior one close to it, round. Upper jaw reaching well past eye. 
Teeth all fixed, pluriserial, present on maxillaries; inner row slightly 
enlarged in female; all teeth small, but not equal in size, in male. 
Palatines prominent, teeth similar to those of jaws. Vomer with two 
teeth on each side. Pseud obranchiae present. Three gill-rakers and 
one rudiment on upper limb of first gill-arch, one raker at angle, 
twelve on lower limb. Seven pyloric caecae. Ovaries filled with 
large yellow eggs, of which the largest measure 3.4 mm. in diameter. 

Color. — Body dark brown. Head bluish-black. Peritoneum and 
linings of mouth and opercles black. 

Remarks. — In the absence of comparative material it has been 
difficult to determine the status of these specimens and those from 
the eastern Atlantic described by Koefoed (1927, p. 54) under the 



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156 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY, VOLUME 39 



Table 4. — Counts and Proportions of Narcetes stomias, N. pluriserialis, and 

N. affinis 
(Taken from the literature where indicated) 

^ sowzos ^ pluriserialis affinis 

Koefoed, Oregon Gilbert, Garman, Lloyd, 

1927 specimens 1890 1899 1906 

Dorsal rays 17-18 17, 18 20 19 17 

Anal rays 15-16 15 16 14 14 

Pectoral rays 10-11 11 9 11 13 

Ventral rays 9 9 8 8 10 

Lateral line 60-70 ca. 55 57 57 73 

Scale rows above lat. line ca. 100 — — 105 100* 

Gill-rakers — 3+13 5+13 3+13 — 

Branchiostegal rays — 8 — 8 7 

Vomerine teeth 1-3 2 "single 1 — 

V series" 

Total length 460-540 — 330-381 432 356 

Standard length 408-490 421-426 _ _ _ 

Times in standard length 

Depth 5.1-5.3 5.4 5.4 6.31 6.7^ 

Head 3.3-3.6 3.2-3.3 3.4-3.5 3. 31 3.7» 

End anal to base middle 

caudal rays 5.0-5.3 5.3-6.1 — 5.2i 5.0i 

Least depth caudal peduncle. .11.5-14.4 12.5-13.2 — 12. 6^ 15. 0^ 

Times in head 

Snout 3.3-3.4 3.7-3.8 3.4 4.0i 4.0^ 

Eye 6.1-6.8 5.9-6.3 6.2 6.0» 5. 71 

1 From figure. 



name N. pluriserialis. Table 4 shows the close relationship between 
stomias, pluriserialis, and affinis. These species also have in com- 
mon enlarged lateral line scales and the peculiar formation of the 
snout, described by Gilbert (1890, p. 53) as follows: "Premaxillaries 
expanded anteriorly to form a triangular projection resembling that 
of Lahidesthes, and overlapping the lower jaw." Although there is 
some difference in counts of lateral line pores, the number of scale 
rows counted above the lateral line appears to be about the same, as 
noted by Koefoed (op. cit., p. 55). This count is not available for 
the type of N. stomias, and the exact count in the two Gulf of Mex- 
ico specimens is uncertain; it may be less than in other specimens. 
These three species can be differentiated from other forms of Nar- 
cetes. They differ from erimelas Alcock principally in the position of 
the anal fin; from garmani Fowler in the position of the vent and the 
length of the maxillary; from pappenheimi Fowler in the size of the 
eye and the length of the maxillary; from wonderi Herre in the posi- 
tion of the dorsal fin and the size of the eye; and from lloydi Fowler 



GREY: ABYSSAL BENTHIC FISHES 157 

in the size of the scales, the shape of the jaws, and in various propor- 
tions. They are perhaps closest to lloydi and wonderi. 

Carman's pluriserialis and Lloyd's affinis differ from stomias in 
having a more slender body, but no further characters separate them. 
The lateral line scales of affinis differ from those of the specimens 
at hand in being smaller and more overlapping anteriorly. N. stomias 
was described as having no enlarged teeth in the jaws but the dis- 
covery of a female with the inner row of teeth slightly enlarged and 
a male without enlarged teeth seems to invalidate this character as 
a specific distinction. In the original description of stomias the dorsal 
and anal counts were said to be, respectively, 111,17 and 11,14. Later, 
Jordan and Evermann (1896, p. 454) gave these counts as 17 and 14. 

Except for slight differences in fin ray counts, there is nothing to 
distinguish Atlantic specimens from the type of N. stom,ias, of which 
there is unfortunately no figure. Atlantic specimens (Table 3) show 
some slight variation among themselves in head length, depth, and 
in the distance from snout to ventral bases, dorsal origin and anal 
origin. Wider ranges are found in lengths of snout, eye, dorsal and 
anal bases, and in the length and depth of the caudal peduncle. 
There is a suggestion that the latter may become more slender with 
age and that the dorsal base may be relatively shorter in older speci- 
mens. There is no distinction between eastern and western Atlantic 
specimens except in lateral line counts and, perhaps, in the length of 
the eye and the distance between the snout and the anal fin. 

Distribution. — Neither the genus Narcetes nor the species N. sto- 
mias has been taken previously in the western Atlantic. In the east- 
em Atlantic the species has been caught off Morocco in 2055 meters 
and south of Ireland in 1797 meters. Two specimens are known from 
the eastern Pacific, the type off the coast of Oregon in 1604 meters 
and a specimen off southern California in 1968 meters. 

Conocara murrayi (Koefoed). Figure 24. 

Alepocephalus murrayi Koefoed, 1927, Rep. Sci. Res. M. Sars No. Atl. Deep-sea 
Exp. 1910, 4, (1), p. 41, pi. 3, fig. 6, text figs. 9, 10. 

Conocara murrayi Grey, 1956, Fieldiana, Zool., 36: 115. 

One specimen, standard length 157 mm. 

Description. — Counts and proportions are shown in Table 5. The 
following measurements are in millimeters: Createst depth 28; length 
of head 58; snout 23; eye 11; interorbital width 12; upper jaw 22.5; 
lower jaw 28; tip of snout to base of ventrals 85, to dorsal origin 109, 
to anal origin 99, to vent 94.5; dorsal base 27; anal base 35; end of 



158 FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY, VOLUME 39 

Table 5. — Counts and Proportions of Conocara murrayi 
(Taken from the literature where indicated) 

Oregon Koefoed, 1927 

specimen 



Dorsal rays 21 19 22 — 

Anal rays 27 26 27 — 

Pectoral rays 8 8 9 — 

Ventral rays 6 5 6 — 

Lateral series of scales 90? 85 85 85 

Standard length 157 206 242 255 

Per cent of standard length 

Depth 21.1 18.5 17.3 18.8 

Head 36.9 35.5 34.6 35.7 

Snout 14.6 11.6 12.4 10.6 

Eye \. . . 7.0 9.6 9.1 9.4 

Interorbital width .^. 7.65 _ _ _ 

Upper jaw 14.3 — — — 

Lower jaw 17.8 — — — 

Tip of snout 

to ventral base 54.0 54.0 56.6 55.3 

to dorsal origin 69.5 73.0 73.5 77.4 

to anal origin 63.0 68.5 68.3 72.2 

to vent 60.2 61.7 64.5 64.7 

Dorsal base 17.7 14.1 14.1 11.4 

Anal base 22.3 19.4 17.8 16.9 

End anal to base middle caudal rays 13.1 15.3 13.6 13.3 

Least depth caudal peduncle 6.4 — — — 

(membrane included) 

Least depth caudal peduncle 4 . 75 — — — 

(muscular portion only) 



anal to base of middle caudal rays 20.5; least depth of caudal pedun- 
cle (membrane included) 10, same, muscular portion only, 7.5. 

Body and tail compressed. Tail semi-transparent below dorsal 
fin, above anal fin, and above and below on caudal peduncle. Caudal 
peduncle as described by Koefoed (1927, p. 41) in his smaller speci- 
men: ". . . membranous dorsally and ventrally, and supported there, 
throughout its major portion, by rays." Vent large, rather promi- 
nent, situated just in front of anal. Pectoral and ventral rays broken. 
Scales all fallen, pockets not clear. Head apparently naked. A 
narrow scaleless area along edge of opercle, above pectoral fin. 

Top of head flat with two low ridges meeting in an angle above 
snout, as described by Koefoed. Upper jaw scarcely reaching ante- 
rior margin of eye. Teeth moderate, curved inward, uniserial, not 
numerous; present on lower jaw, premaxillaries and palatines; none 
on maxillaries or vomer. 

Color. — Head black, body pale gray. Linings of mouth and gill 
covers black. 



GREY: ABYSSAL BENTHIC FISHES 159 

Remarks.— The specimen differs from the types in having a longer 
snout, smaller eye, longer dorsal and anal bases, more anteriorly 
placed dorsal and anal fins and a more posteriorly placed vent. The 
anal fin is also relatively farther in front of the dorsal than in Koe- 
foed's examples. However, except for the size of the eye, in all of 




Fig. 24. Conocara murrayi (Koefoed). 

these characters the Oregon specimen is closer proportionately to 
Koefoed's smallest specimen and it is possible that the dorsal and 
anal fin bases shorten with age (Table 5). Such a reduction in size 
would change the relative positions of the origins of these fins as well 
as the distance between the vent and the anal fin. The Oregon fish is 
obviously a juvenile and since the form and appearance of the dorsal 
and anal fins suggest the possibility of the growth changes noted 
above, it seems more likely to be a young example of murrayi than a 
representative of a new species. 

The proportionate depth of the caudal peduncle is not a useful 
character. Koefoed stated (op. cit., p. 42) that in his largest speci- 
men the membranous portions of the peduncle were covered with 
musculature. 

Distribution. — Eastern Atlantic, one specimen off Morocco in 
2055 meters and two specimens off the Canary Islands in 2603 me- 
ters. Western Atlantic in the Gulf of Mexico (first western Atlantic 
capture). 

Family BATHYPTEROIDAE 
Benthosaurus grallator Goode and Bean 

Benthosaurus grallator Goode and Bean, 1886, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 12: 168; 
Grey, 1956, Fieldiana, Zool., 36: 131 (complete synonymy and distribution). 

Three specimens, standard lengths 291, 248, 154 mm. 

Description. — Counts and proportions are shown in Table 6. The 
following measurements are in millimeters, the first figure represent- 
ing the largest specimen: Greatest depth 42.5, 38,5, 20.5; length of 
head 85.5, 69.5, 44; snout 23, 19, 13; interorbital width 23.5, 18, 11.5; 



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GREY: ABYSSAL BENTHIC FISHES 161 

upper jaw 58.5, 46, 30.5; tip of mandible to origin of dorsal 137.5, 
116.5, 72.5, to origin of anal 170, 135.5, 87; tip of snout to origin of 
dorsal 132.5, 114, 70, to origin of anal 167, 134, 85; end of anal fin to 
base of middle caudal rays 88, 75.5, 46; least depth of caudal peduncle 
21, 17, 10; length of upper pectoral ray 91, 87 (broken), 60; length of 
outer ventral rays ca. 466, 330, 220; length of lower caudal rays 
ca. 423, 306.5, 202. 

Last rays of dorsal and anal fins split to base. Two upper pec- 
toral rays closely bound together for the greater part of their length, 
separate at tips. Two outer ventral rays and two lower caudal rays 
closely bound together for their full length. Caudal deeply forked, 
two uppermost rays short, upper lobe larger than lower, exclusive of 
the prolonged rays. End of lateral line turning up toward upper 
caudal lobe. A small, broad-based, flat papilla present just behind 
vent in all three specimens. 

Remarks. — Mr. Robert Kanazawa, of the United States National 
Museum, has kindly examined one of the cotypes of B. grallator, 
USNM no. 35651, and reports (in litt.) that on this specimen also 
the lateral line at its posterior end turns upward toward the upper 
caudal lobe, which is larger than the lower lobe (exclusive of the 
elongated rays). He has counted 12 dorsal rays and 13 anal rays, 
the last ray of each being split to the base so that they might be 
counted as 13 and 14. The pectoral count of this specimen is 12, the 
first two rays minute, the third and fourth bound together but di- 
vided at the base. The Oregon specimens do not have the two minute 
upper rays. Ventral rays are 8, the first two bound together and dif- 
ficult to distinguish. Mr. Kanazawa has also compared the cotype 
with the photograph of Skagerakia nilssoni (Nybelin, 1946, figs. 3, 4) 
and has found the general appearance to be similar. It is probable 
that the type specimen is like USNM no. 35651 and that the figure 
(Goode and Bean, 1895, fig. 73) is somewhat misleading. Goode and 
Bean (op. cit., p. 63) wrote of no. 35651: "It is well preserved and 
throws additional light on the external characters of the species." 

It thus becomes clear that Skagerakia Nybelin is not a valid genus, 
nor can the species nilssoni be maintained when all reported speci- 
mens of the genus Benthosaurus are critically compared (Table 6). 
The original diagnosis of the genus needs only to be changed as fol- 
lows: Ventrals eight-rayed, the two outer rays closely bound together 
and greatly produced. 

A close check of the differences noted by Nybelin (1946, p. 4; 
1948, p. 32) between eastern and western Atlantic specimens results 
in the elimination of most of them, as follows: 



162 FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY, VOLUME 39 

(1) Depth of caudal peduncle in relation to its length, measured 
from end of anal to base of caudal. As shown in Table 6 the Oregon 
specimens in this respect are like those from the eastern Atlantic, 
while the types seem to have a more slender peduncle. However, 
Goode and Bean did not state whether they measured the length of 
the caudal peduncle from the end of the anal fin or from the end of 
the dorsal. If the latter measurement is used the peduncle length of 
the eastern Atlantic and Oregon examples is 37-40 per cent of the 
standard length, as in the types. 

(2) Length of head. The difference is not great, but in this char- 
acter all of the Oregon specimen^ are closer to eastern Atlantic exam- 
ples than to the types. \ 

(3) Scale pockets are visible on the opercles of Oregon specimens. 

(4) Profile of body, upturned lateral line and larger upper caudal 
lobe are discussed above. 

(5) Dorsal rays. The Oregon fishes and one of the types have the 
same number of rays as those from the eastern Atlantic. These rays 
may also have been miscounted by Goode and Bean on the figured 
specimen. 

Table 6 shows some discrepancy in depth proportions, but the 
lesser and greater depths are found in both eastern and western ex- 
amples. This character, as well as the relative length and depth of 
the caudal peduncle, may be subject to variation. 

Distribution. — Western Atlantic off the northern United States 
coast and in the Gulf of Mexico (type locality) , five specimens caught 
in 2104-3384 meters. Eastern Atlantic off Morocco and southwest 
of the Azores, three specimens in 2150-2865 meters. 

Bathypterois phenax Parr. Figure 25. 

Bathypterois atricolor phenax Parr, 1928, Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., 3, (3), 
p. 31. 

Bathypterois phenax Grey, 1956, Fieldiana, Zool., 36 : 133 (complete synonymy). 

Two specimens, standard lengths ca. 133 and 86 mm. 

Description. — Counts and proportions are shown in Table 7. The 
following measurements are in millimeters, the first figure represent- 
ing the larger specimen: Depth 16, 9.5; head 30, 21; snout 9.5, 6; 
eye 2.5, 1.5-2; tip of snout to ventral base 50, 32.5, to dorsal origin 
52, 34, to anal origin 75, 51.5; end of anal to base of middle caudal 
rays 41, 27; least depth of caudal peduncle 9, 5.5; longest ventral 
ray 40.5, 24.5. 



GREY: ABYSSAL BENTHIC FISHES 



163 




Fig. 25. Baihypterois phenax Parr. Standard length ca. 133 mm. 

Both specimens with a small, narrow, elongate papilla behind 
vent. Anal origin just behind a vertical from end of dorsal. Two 
upper pectoral rays broken off short in larger fish; in smaller speci- 
men extending beyond base of caudal but not as far as its tip, sepa- 
rated at ends. Lower pectoral rays not reaching origin of ventrals 
in smaller specimen, all pectoral rays broken in larger one. Outer 
two ventral rays with flattened and rounded, but not enlarged, tips; 
reaching past anal origin in smaller specimen, to end of anal in larger 
one. Both caudal lobes rather long and about equal, all rays broken 



Table 7. — Counts and Proportions of Baihypterois phenax 
(Taken from the literature where indicated) 

Oregon 

Parr, 1928 specimen Parr, 1928 

Dorsal rays 14 14 13 

Anal rays 9 9 9 

Pectoral rays 3+8 3+7 3+8 

Ventral rays 9 9 9 

Lateral line 50 56-57 51 

Standard length 162 ca. 133 123 

Per cent of standard length 

Depth 15.5 12.0 12.5 

Head 24.0 22.6 20.2 

Snout 7.4 7.15 7.3 

Eye 2.2 1.9 2.3 

Tip of snout 

to ventral base 40.0 37.6 37.5 

to dorsal origin 43.6 39.1 44.0 

to anal origin 61.0 56.4 60.0 

End anal to base middle C. rays. .. . — 30.8 — 

Least depth caudal peduncle — 6.75 — 

Longest ventral ray — 30 . 2 — 



Oregon 
specimen 

16 
10 

3+8 
8 
ca. 54 

86 



11.0 

24.6 

7.0 

2.1-2.6 

37.8 
39.5 
60.0 
31.4 
6.4 
28.4 



164 FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY, VOLUME 39 

at tips, the lower two longer than others but not enlarged. Caudal 
notch present. 

Teeth minute, in a very narrow band in lower jaw and a slightly 
wider band in upper jaw. A few minute teeth present on each side 
of vomer. Smaller specimen with 14 small, soft, transparent flaps 
projecting outward on each side of outer edge of lower jaw (at first 
glance these appear to be teeth). A few similar but smaller struc- 
tures on posterior lower edges of maxillaries. Larger specimen with 
one or two of these little flaps on posterior edge of lower jaw but none 
elsewhere. Head of larger specimen somewhat damaged. 

Color. — Smaller specimen vk^h. body entirely blackish except the 
pale elongated pectoral rays and prolonged ends of outer ventral rays. 
Larger specimen partially black or dark brown, probably uniformly 
dark in fresh state; fins dusky; head and ventrals darker. Perito- 
neum, inside mouth, and gill covers black. 

Distribution. — The species has been known previously only from 
two specimens taken off the Bahama Islands in 1645-1729 meters. 

Family IPNOPIDAE 
Ipnops tnurrayi Giinther 

Ipnops murrayi Giinther, 1878, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), 2: 187; Grey, 1956, 
Fieldiana, Zool., 36: 136 (complete synonymy and distribution). 

One specimen, standard length 112.5 mm. 

Description. — Dorsal rays 10; anal 14; pectoral 13; ventral 8; 
caudal 12 + 11. Lateral series of scales 52. The following measure- 
ments are in millimeters, the figures in parentheses representing per 
cent of standard length: Total length ca. 135; standard length 112.5; 
depth 10.5 (9.35) ; head 24 (21.3) ; tip of snout to origin of dorsal 36.5 
(32.4), to origin of anal 73 (65.0), to base of ventral 29.5 (26.2); end 
of anal to base of caudal 18 (16.0) ; least depth of caudal peduncle 
4 (3.56). 

Color. — In alcohol, black. Mr. Harvey R. Bullis, Jr., who col- 
lected the specimen, has written (1955, in litt.) that when fresh the 
fish was black with some deep blue on the under side of the head and 
on the belly, while the plates on the head were bright, almost bril- 
liant, yellow. 

Family NETTASTOMIDAE 

Venefica procera (Goode and Bean) 

Nettastoma procerum Goode and Bean, 1883, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 10: 224. 
Venefica procera Grey, 1956, Fieldiana, Zool., 36: 141 (complete synonymy). 



GREY: ABYSSAL BENTHIC F^HES 165 

Three specimens, total lengths about 713, 726 and 748+ mm. 

Remarks. — The largest specimen lacks part of the tail and meas- 
ures 301 mm. to the vent. The smaller specimens are 265.5 and 
283 mm. to the vent, this anterior part of the body being 37.2 and 
39 per cent of the total length. If the same length (301 mm.) of the 
largest specimen were 37-39 per cent of the total length, the fish 
would then have measured between 770 and 810 mm. in length. 

Distribution. — The species has not previously been taken in the 
Gulf of Mexico. In the Atlantic it has been caught in the Caribbean 
Sea (ca. 16° N., 62° W.) and off the United States coast (33°-34° N.), 
326-1183 meters. One specimen is known from the Pacific, in the 
Celebes Sea, 301 meters. 

Family HALOSAURIDAE 
Aldrovandia gracilis Goode and Bean 

Aldrovandia gracilis Goode and Bean, 1895, Ocean. Ichth., p. 134, fig. 157; 
Grey, 1956, Fieldiana, Zool., 36: 154, 320. 

Twenty-one specimens, total lengths 267-536 mm. 

Description. — The specimens agree well with the original descrip- 
tion and figure. Tail long and slender, tapering to a filiform tip, often 
broken ; some specimens with pseudocaudal developed . Ventral bases 
distinctly in advance of dorsal origin. Scales mostly fallen. Head 
naked except on cheeks and behind eye. Bones of head thin and 
transparent; a long bony channel extending below eye from mouth 
to slightly beyond edge of opercle. Nostrils small, close together, 
situated just in front of eye, the posterior one larger, the anterior 
one with a small tube. Teeth small, pointed, in bands on jaws, 
vomer, and palatines (including a very narrow band on maxillaries) . 
Vomerine bands of teeth separate from one another and from the 
narrow palatine bands. Pectoral rays 10-11. Upper limb of first 
gill-arch with two short gill-rakers and a rudiment, lower limb with 
6-8 rakers and 2-4 rudiments, the total usually 12+3. 

CoZor.— Trunk and tail fairly uniformly pale with yellowish tinge; 
head and belly blackish. Isthmus dusky or black, inside of mouth 
and gill covers black. Pre-oral portion of snout whitish or translucent. 

Remarks. — A. gracilis is very similar to A. pallida but differs in 
having a more slender body, a shorter pre-oral snout length and more 
forwardly placed ventral and anal fins. The pectoral fin of gracilis 
is smaller, more delicate, and with fewer rays than that of pallida, 



166 FIELi)IANA: ZOOLOGY, VOLUME 39 

and there are also differences in color. Proportionately the two spe- 
cies show some overlap but can be distinguished with certainty by 
the difference in the relative positions of dorsal and ventral fins. 
The origins of these fins are much closer together in A. pallida. If 
the per cent of the distance between tip of snout and ventral bases 
is subtracted from the per cent of the distance between tip of snout 
and dorsal origin, the difference in pallida is found to range only up 
to 5.6 while in gracilis the difference is 6.4 to 11.4. 

Distribution. — A. gracilis has been taken only in the Gulf of Mex- 
ico, in the Caribbean Sea off Guadeloupe Island, and off the United 
States coast in ca. 42° N., 63° W. Depth range 1380-2615 meters. 

Aldrovandia pallida Goode and Bean. Figure 26. 

Aldrovandia pallida Goode and Bean, 1895, Ocean. Ichth., p. 135, fig. 158; 
Grey, 1956, Fieldiana, Zool., 36: 154. 

Twenty specimens, total lengths 307.5-512 mm. (twelve females 
415+ -512 mm.; four males 400 H — 444+ mm.; and four specimens 
of undetermined sex, 307.5-459 mm.). 

Description. — The specimens agree well with the description and 
figure of the type. Tail long and slender, broken in some speci- 
mens, some with pseudocaudal. Dorsal origin above or close behind 
a vertical from ventral bases. Scales mostly fallen. Scales on head, 
and suborbital mucus cavity, as in A. gracilis. Nostrils small, close 
together, situated just in front of eye; anterior nostril of female color- 
less and with a small, scarcely noticeable tube or flap; anterior nostril 
of male with a relatively long, prominent, black tube. Teeth as in 
A. gracilis, those on maxillaries minute, even smaller than those of 
gracilis. Gill-rakers as in gracilis, with the total usually 11+3. Pec- 
toral rays usually 13, one specimen with 12, three specimens with 14. 
Ovaries of six largest female specimens with numerous very small 
yellow eggs. 

Color. — Trunk and head pale with a whitish or silvery tinge. 
Snout somewhat translucent. Under side of head bluish or bluish 
black, isthmus and top of head blackish. Inside of mouth and oper- 
cular linings black, the latter showing through the thin opercular 
bones. Tail and anal fin brown, darker than trunk, varying some- 
what in different specimens. Varying amounts of black or dark 
brown pigment present on belly between ventral fins and anal fin. 
Snout in some examples colorless, in others brownish. 

Remarks. — Closely related to A. gracilis (see above). 





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167 



168 FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY, VOLUME 39 

Distribution. — The species is not known outside the western At- 
lantic, where it has been taken in the Gulf of Mexico and off the 
United States coast to ca. 41° N. in 1241-2615 meters. 



Family MACROURIDAE 

Chalinura murrayi (Giinther) 

Coryphaenoides murrayi Giinther, 1878, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), 2: 26. 

Chalinura murrayi Grey, 1956, Fieloiiana, Zool., 36: 170, 320 (complete syn- 
onymy). 

One specimen, total length 730 mm. 

Description. — Dorsal rays 10; anal 117; pectoral 19; ventral 13; 
branchiostegal 6. The following measurements are in millimeters, 
the figures in parentheses representing per cent of total length: Tip 
of snout to anal origin 249 (34.2) ; length of head 138 (18.9) ; greatest 
depth 134 (18.4); outer ventral ray 128 (17.5). 

In the following measurements the figures in parentheses repre- 
sent percentage of head length: Diameter of orbit 25 (18.1) ; length of 
snout 33 (23.9); length of barbel 36 (26.1); interorbital width 32 
(23.2); length of upper jaw 58 (42.0) ; length of lower jaw 54 (39.1); 
base of outer ventral ray to anal origin 77 (55.7) ; outer ventral ray 
128 (93.0); greatest depth 134 (97.2). 

Dorsal profile rising steeply from snout, body in front of dorsal 
fin with a decidedly "humpbacked" appearance. Greatest depth at 
region of ventral bases. Vent close to anal origin, no scaleless areas 
around it. Abdominal cavity not (or only very slightly) extending 
beyond anal origin. Second dorsal spine finely serrate. Origin of 
second dorsal fin above eleventh or twelfth anal ray, the first rays 
rudimentary. Ventral bases beneath pectoral bases, outer ventral 
ray elongate, reaching ninth or tenth anal ray when depressed. 
Scales large, almost all lost, scale-pockets clear, 7-8 above lateral 
line, 19 below. Scales dissimilar on different parts of body and head : 
one remaining on head at upper end of gill opening smooth; one on 
head above preopercle with 10 low, more or less parallel ridges; one 
on anterior portion of lateral line with 5 small spiny ridges above the 
central groove and 4 below it; on belly just behind isthmus several 
scales with about 12 ridges, slightly more radiating than parallel. 

Upper part of head entirely scaled except the short vertical por- 
tion of the snout, which is naked ; scales on top of head between eyes 
irregular, about 13 in transverse count. Mouth large, upper jaw 
reaching end of orbit. Upper jaw with an inner band of minute teeth 



GREY: ABYSSAL BENTHIC FISHES 169 

and a single outer series of small, conical, well-separated teeth. Lower 
jaw with a single row of small, separated teeth. Vomer and pala- 
tines toothless. Second gill-arch with two rudimentary rakers on the 
short upper limb and nine short, widely spaced rakers on the lower 
limb, followed by two rudiments. 

Coior.— Brown, with scale-pockets outlined in black. Dorsal, anal 
and pectoral fins brown; ventrals dusky. Branchiostegal membrane, 
linings of mouth and opercles, and peritoneum black. 

Remarks. — C. murrayi is closely related both to C. Simula and 
C. brevibarbis, from which it differs principally in having more ven- 
tral rays and a deeper body. Farran (1924, p. 102) has shown that 
the exaggerated dorsal development of C. murrayi is characteristic 
of older specimens. It may also be a sexual character. The Oregon 
example, a male, is considerably larger than any hitherto recorded 
and has a markedly "humpbacked" appearance. 

Distribution. — C. murrayi has not been recorded previously from 
the western Atlantic. Originally described from three specimens 
taken by the Challenger expedition off New Zealand, it has since 
been reported only in the eastern Atlantic: from near Rockall (ca. 
57° N., 11° W.); off southwestern Ireland; in ca. 35° N., 8° W.; and 
perhaps off the Azores. 

Family BROTULIDAE 
Grenus Dicrolene Goode and Bean 

A study of published descriptions and figures of the species of 
Dicrolene has proved the impossibility of working up a key without 
an examination of the specimens. Such a key would necessitate tak- 
ing many proportions from the figures, an uncertain course at best 
and particularly so in this case as some of the ranges are small; for 
example, the depth appears to vary from about 5 (nigricaudis) to 
7.4 (gregoryi) times in the standard length, with nearly all of the in- 
tervening figures found in other species. Similarly, the head goes 
into the standard length from about 4 (nigricaudis) to 5.5 times 
(nigra). The distance between the tip of the snout and the dorsal 
origin varies from 3.3 to 4.6 times in standard length, that of snout 
to anal 2.1 to 2.8 times. The relative lengths of the pectoral and 
ventral fins, as well as snout length, maxillary length, and eye diam- 
eter, are not reliable. Some of these parts of the body lengthen or 
diminish in relative size with growth. 

D. nigra Garman and D. gregoryi Trotter seem to differ from other 
species in having higher dorsal and anal counts. They also have 



170 FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY, VOLUME 39 

smaller scales than other forms and a tendency toward a more slen- 
der body and smaller head, although these last two characters are 
shared with other species. Only nigra, gregoryi, and intronigra have 
been described as having a small spine above the eye posteriorly. 

D. nigricaudis (Alcock) has a relatively deeper body, shorter tail, 
and longer head than other species, and shares with D. hubrechti 
Weber lower dorsal and anal counts. Norman (1939, p. 86) has pro- 
posed a subgenus, Brachydicrolene, for nigricaudis, and perhaps to 
include hubrechti also. ) 

D. kanazawai, new sp., is the only species with a long, curved 
opercular spine that extends beyond the margin of the opercle. This 
spine, measured from its base at the edge of the preopercle, is equal 
in length to the distance from the tip of the snout to the posterior 
edge of the eye. Several other species have a strong opercular spine, 
especially intronigra and multifilis, but in none does it approach the 
relative length of the spine of kanazawai. 

Apparently the number of pectoral rays is subject to great varia- 
tion, even on individual specimens. The count differs on left and 
right sides in four of the five specimens of kanazawai. In general, 
however, this new form has more pectoral rays than other species. 

The genus Dicrolene is known from the eastern and western north 
Atlantic and off South Africa (intronigra Goode and Bean, although 
eastern Atlantic specimens may differ from the type); the eastern 
Pacific (pullata Garman, nigra Garman, filamentosa Garman, gregoryi 
Trotter) ; the western Pacific (longimana Smith and Radcliffe, tristis 
Smith and Radcliffe, multifilis (Alcock), quinquaria Giinther, hu- 
brechti Weber); and the north Indian Ocean (nigricaudis (Alcock), 
longimana Smith and Radcliffe, multifilis (Alcock), intronigra Goode 
and Bean). The distribution suggests a possible continuity that 
might allow subspecific development, perhaps even in two directions, 
horizontal and vertical. Specimens have been taken between about 
300 and 1900 meters, with one doubtful record in 5000 meters and 
seven specimens of the new species kanazawai in 2104-2194 meters. 

Dicrolene kanazawai, new species. Figure 27. 

Holotype. — United States National Museum no. 159332, standard 
length 254 mm. 

Paratypes. — Six; standard lengths 203.5-233 mm. 

Description. — Counts and proportions are shown in Table 8. 
Head rounded, body compressed, tail long and rather slender. 
Greatest depth at origin of dorsal, close behind pectoral base. Vent 



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172 FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY, VOLUME 39 

just in front of anal fin. Dorsal and anal fins largely covered with 
skin, which is thicker anteriorly. A lobe of black, scaleless skin 
above pectoral base. Upper pectoral rays black, filamentous at ends, 
longest reaching past anal origin. Lower pectoral rays paler, shorter 
than longest upper rays, not quite reaching vent. Scales small, 
mostly lost, covering head, body, and bases of dorsal and anal fins. 
No lateral line visible. 

Snout short, somewhat swollen. Nostrils large, the posterior one 
a vertical slit close to eye, the anterior one horizontal. Upper jaw 
reaching posterior margin of eye or just beyond. Teeth villiform, in 
bands on jaws, vomer, and palatines. A row of large pores around 
front, lower, and hind margins of eye, and extending backward, 
above, to end of head. Opercular spine long, strong, narrow, curv- 
ing upward and reaching well beyond end of opercular membrane. 
Preopercle of holotype and smallest paratype with four short, stout, 
broad-based spines at and above angle on left side, and three spines 
on right side; other specimens with four spines on both sides. No 
other spines on head. Lower limb of first gill-arch with eleven well- 
developed gill-rakers and six very small rudiments; upper limb with 
five rudimentary rakers, the last two much smaller than the first three. 

Color. — Brown with a faint reddish tinge on back. Head and 
belly blackish. Ventrals dusky. Pectorals largely black. Vertical 
fins gray, paler posteriorly. Peritoneum, linings of mouth and gill 
covers black. 

Remarks. — Dicrolene kanazawai differs from all other species of 
the genus in the length of the opercular spine, the additional small 
spine at the angle of the preopercle, the larger number of pectoral 
rays, and in having most of the upper rays of this fin longer than the 
longest rays of the lower portion. It is probably most nearly related 
to D. intronigra Goode and Bean, from which it differs, in addition 
to the characters mentioned above, in lacking a spine above the eye 
and in having a slightly larger eye, shorter maxillary, and shorter 
pectoral fin. There is also a slight difference in the gill-rakers. Those 
of the upper limb of the first gill-arch are all rudimentary in form in 
kanazawai, while the first two or three in intronigra are of normal 
shape, though smaller than those of the lower limb. In specimens 
of intronigra examined, from both the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf 
of Mexico, the lobe of skin above the pectoral base is dusky in color, 
not black as in kanazawai. In proportions, the two species are very 
similar. 

The new species is named for Mr. Robert Kanazawa, of the 
United States National Museum, in appreciation of his help, over a 



fti 



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o 



m 



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173 



174 FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY, VOLUME 39 

long period of time, in supplying measurements and counts of vari- 
ous fishes. 

Bassozetus normalis Gill 

Bassozetus normalis Gill, 1883, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 6: 259; Grey, 1956, 
Fieldiana, Zool., 36: 208 (complete svnonymy). 

Two specimens, standard length^299 and 164 mm. 

Description. — Dorsal rays ca. 116; anal 100; pectoral 24-25; ven- 
tral 1; caudal 8; branchiostegal 8. Measurements in millimeters, 
followed in parentheses by per cent of standard length, the first fig- 
ure in each case referring to the larger specimen: Total length 329, 
170; standard length 299, 164; depth 45, 23.5 (15.0, 14.3). Head 
61.5, 33 (20.5, 20.3) ; snout 16, 8 (5.25, 4.86) ; eye 7, 4 (2.3, 2.4) ; inter- 
orbital width 21, 12 (7.04, 7.3); upper jaw 31.5, 16.4 (10.6, 10.0); 
lower jaw 35, 19.5 (11.7, 11.9); tip of snout to ventral base 51, 26 
(17.0, 15.8), to origin of dorsal 58.5, 31 (19.6, 18.9), to vent 99, 51 
(33.1, 32.9), to origin of anal 106.5, 56 (35.6, 34.1); ventral base to 
vent 52, 26.5 (17.4, 16.2) ; length of pectoral fin 29, 20 (9.7, 12.2) ; 
length of ventral fin 49, ca. 29 (16.4, 17.7). 

Body thin and compressed, tail long and tapering. Dorsal and 
anal extending almost to caudal. Ventral bases close together, rays 
rather long, nearly reaching vent in larger specimen, beyond it in 
smaller one. Vent close to anal fin; a very small, fiat, triangular 
papilla just behind it in both specimens. Scales all fallen, pockets 
visible all over head and body, about 40 transverse rows counted 
obliquely forward from anal origin. No lateral line apparent. 

Head moderately compressed posteriorly but round and inflated 
anteriorly, covered with soft, thick skin; no spines visible. Nostrils 
round, the posterior one slightly larger, close to eye, the anterior one 
about 3 mm. in front of it in larger specimen. Teeth villiform, in 
bands on jaws, palatines and vomer. Free edge of preopercle and 
short vertical edge of opercle crenate. A deep black membrane ex- 
tending slightly beyond edge of opercle. Lower limb of first gill-arch 
with fifteen normal and four rudimentary gill-rakers, upper limb with 
four rudimentary ones. No pseudobranchiae. 

Color. — Body pale, head and belly black. Peritoneum and linings 
of mouth and gill covers black. 

Remarks. — These specimens differ from the description of the type 
and from the figure shown by Goode and Bean (1895, p. 322, fig. 287) 
in having a larger head and deeper body. They agree in all other 



GREY: ABYSSAL BENTHIC FISHES 175 

respects except that the diameter of the eye goes only 23^ times in 
the snout length, while in the type it was said to go four times. How- 
ever, in the figure the eye seems to be proportionately like that of the 
Oregon specimens. As in the type description, the vent is about twice 
as far from the caudal base as from the snout and the figure shows 
the same flap of black skin extending beyond the edge of the opercle, 
the same profile of the head, no visible spines on the head, etc. 

Bassozetus oncerocephalus (Vaillant), from the eastern Atlantic, 
seems to be closely related to B. normalis. 

Distribution. — The species has been found only in the western 
Atlantic off Dominica (West Indies), in the Gulf of Mexico, and off 
the United States coast, in 2068-2844 meters. 

Porogadus miles Goode and Bean 

Porogadus miles Goode and Bean, 1886, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 8: 602; Grey, 
1956, Fieldiana, Zool., 36: 211 (complete synonymy). 

One specimen, standard length 281 mm. 

Description. — Counts and proportions are shown in Table 9. 
The following measurements are in millimeters. Total length 291; 
standard length 281; depth 25.5; head 48; snout 15; eye 8.5; inter- 
orbital width 8; upper jaw 26.5; lower jaw 30; tip of snout to ventral 
base 40, to dorsal origin 54, to vent 88, to anal origin 92; ventral base 
to vent 51; length of pectoral fin 27.5; length of ventral fin 31. 

Body compressed, tail long and attenuate. Greatest depth at 
region of pectoral base. A small lobe of scaleless black skin above 
pectoral base. Dorsal origin just behind pectoral base. Vent close 
to anal origin. Ventrals not reaching vent, their bases close together. 
Scales all fallen, scale-pockets clear, about 36 transverse rows counted 
obliquely forward from vent. Lateral lines: upper row with eleven 
small pores; median row reaching about to a vertical above vent, 
marked by well-spaced, lighter-colored scale-pockets, no pores vis- 
ible; lower row similar to median row, very low on body, beginning 
below pectoral base and reaching 50-55 mm. beyond vent. 

Head somewhat compressed behind eye, flat on top, snout de- 
pressed. Arrangement of spines and pores as in type. Posterior 
nostril large, oval, in front of eye; anterior nostril smaller, close to 
upper jaw. Teeth minute, in villiform bands on jaws, palatines and 
vomer. Tip of tongue with a small, rather pointed knob. No pseudo- 
branchiae. Lower limb of first gill-arch with fifteen long gill-rakers, 
upper limb with three rudimentary ones, the first of these the longest. 



176 FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY, VOLUME 39 

Table 9. — Counts and Proportions of Porogadus miles 
(Taken from the literature where indicated) 

Goode and Bean, Oregon 

1895 specimen 

Total length 153(?) 291 

Standard length ., 153(?) 281 

Dorsal rays (. . — 170 

Anal rays ) — ca. 135 

Pectoral rays — 16 

Ventral rays 2 2 

Caudal rays , — 6 

Branchiostegal rays 8 7 

Gill-rakers * 15+3 15+3 

Transverse scale count ca. 34^ ca. 36 

Per cent of standard length 

Depth 9.8 9.1 

Head 15.0 17.1 

Snout — 5.35 

Eye 2.6 3.2 

Interorbital width — 2.85 

Upper jaw 8.5 9.45 

Lower jaw 9.8 10.7 

Snout 

to ventral base — 14.2 

to dorsal origin 16.3 19.2 

to vent — 31.3 

to anal origin 28.8 32.8 

Ventral base to vent 14.4? 18.1 

Pectoral length — 9.8 

Ventral length 9.8 11.0 

1 From figure. 

Color. — Body brown, paler scale-pockets giving it a speckled ap- 
pearance. Belly and head darker, almost black. Pectorals and dorsal 
dark brown, anal gray, ventrals light gray. Peritoneum and linings 
of mouth and gill covers black. 

Remarks. — This specimen differs a little in some proportions from 
the description of the type, as shown in Table 9, but is in almost exact 
agreement with the figure of the type specimen. The most important 
proportional difference is in the distance from the ventral bases to the 
vent. However, this distance is seen in the figure to be longer than 
the head, although in the text its length was given as 22 mm. (head 
23 mm.) and it was said to be "nearly equal to length of head." The 
same measurement is several millimeters longer than the head in the 
Oregon example and was "slightly greater than head" in a specimen 
recorded from South Africa (Gilchrist, 1906, p. 159). Another meas- 
urement in the type description is probably an error also. The width 
of the interorbital space was given as 15 mm., although this width 



GREY: ABYSSAL BENTHIC FISHES 177 

was said to be 4 3/5 in head. The proportions of the type are also 
rendered somewhat dubious, as its length, 153 mm., may include the 
caudal fin. 

Porogadus nudus Vaillant, from the eastern Atlantic, is closely 
related to P. miles and may prove to be the same species. It differs 
principally in the complete absence of lateral lines. 

Distribution. — This is the first specimen of P. miles to be taken 
in the Gulf of Mexico. It is known otherwise only from the type, 
which was caught off the United States coast in ca. 38° N., 73° W., 
in 2136 meters, and a specimen found off Cape Point, South Africa, 
in 1280-1463 meters. 

Porogadus subarmatus Vaillant 

Porogadus subarmatus Vaillant, 1888, Exp. Sci. Trav. Talis., Poiss., p. 265, 
pi. 24, fig. 3; Grey, 1956, Fieldiana, Zool., 36: 213 (complete synonymy); 
Nybelin, 1957, Rep. Swedish Deep-sea Exp., 2, Zool., 20: 291, 335, pi. 6, 
fig. 7. 

Two specimens, standard lengths 222 -f and 172 mm. 

Description. — Dorsal rays 177 and ca. 179; anal ca. 153 + ; pec- 
toral 16; ventral 2. The larger specimen lacks the caudal fin and an 
undetermined portion of the tail, and the proportions given for this 
fish may be slightly incorrect. The fact that the smaller example, 
with tail complete, has a dorsal count of ca. 179 and the larger one 
177 indicates that only a few millimeters of the tail are broken off. 

The following measurements are in millimeters, the figures in pa- 
rentheses representing per cent of standard length. The first figure 
in each case refers to the larger specimen. Depth 19.5, 14.5 (8.8, 
8.45); head 31.5, 24.5 (14.2, 14.2); snout 7, 5.5? (3.15, 3.2?); orbit 
ca. 7, ca. 5 (ca. 3.15, ca. 2.9); interorbital width ca. 5.5, 5 (ca. 2.48, 
2.9); upper jaw 18, 15 (8.1, 8.73); lower jaw 21, 17.5 (9.45, 10.2); tip 
of snout to ventral base 26, 22.5 (11.7, 13.0), to dorsal origin 34.5, 28 
(15.5, 16.2), to vent ca. 63.5, ca. 49 (ca. 28.6, ca. 28.4), to anal origin 
66, 53 (29.7, 30.8) ; ventral base to vent ca. 37.5, ca. 27 (ca. 16.8, 
ca. 15.7); length of pectoral fin 23.5, — (10.6, — ); length of ventral 
fin ca. 19, — (ca. 8.55, — ), 

Body and tail compressed. Tail very attenuate, tapering to a 
slender tip. Greatest depth at region of pectoral base. Dorsal and 
anal extending almost to caudal. Dorsal origin just behind pectoral 
base. Pectorals and ventrals of smaller specimen broken. Ventral 
bases close together, placed almost beneath preopercle. Area around 
vent slightly damaged in both specimens, vent probably a few milli- 



178 FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY, VOLUME 39 

meters in advance of anal origin. No scale-pockets visible. No lat- 
eral line apparent. 

Head somewhat compressed, top rounded, snout not depressed. 
Heads of both specimens slightly damaged, eyes of smaller one miss- 
ing. Jet-black opercular membrane, ^vhen intact, partially covering 
pectoral bases. Spination and pores on head as in type. Posterior 
nostril in front of eye, either torn or very large; anterior nostril not 
far in advance, smaller, round. Teeth villiform, in bands on jaws, 
palatines, and vomer. Tongue ending in a small, blunt knob. No 
pseudobranchiae. Upper limb of first gill-arch with one long and four 
short rudimentary gill-rakers in larger specimen, and two long and 
three rudimentary rakers in smaller example. Lower limb of first 
gill-arch with seventeen long rakers and four or five minute rudimen- 
tary rakers in larger fish, and sixteen long and three minute rudi- 
mentary rakers in smaller specimen. Total long gill-rakers on first 
arch eighteen. 

Color. — Top of head, back and tail pale. Belly, remainder of head, 
peritoneum and linings of mouth and gill covers black. 

Remarks. — P. subarmatus is probably most nearly related to P. 
nudus Vaillant and P. miles Goode and Bean, from both of which it 
differs principally in the size, shape, and reduced spination of the 
head. 

Distribution. — The species was known previously from twelve 
specimens taken in a single haul off Cape Verde, North Africa, in 
3200 meters. 

Penopus microphthalmus (Vaillant). Figure 28, 

Sirembo microphthalmus Vaillant, 1888, Exp. Sci. Trav. Talis., Poiss., p. 275, 
pi. 24, fig. 4. 

Penopus{?) microphthalmus Grey, 1956, Fieldiana, Zool., 36: 215. 

Penopus microphthalmus Nybelin, 1957, Rep. Swedish Deep-sea Exp., 2, Zool., 
20: 292, 335. 

One specimen, total length 112.5 mm. 

Description.— Pectoral rays 18; ventral 1; caudal 8. Measure- 
ments in millimeters, followed in parentheses by per cent of standard 
length: Total length 112.5; standard length 107; depth 10 (9.35); 
width of body at dorsal origin 5 (4.66); length of head 24 (22.4); 
width of head at edge of preopercle 7.5 (6.6) ; snout 8.5 (7.93) ; pre- 
oral length of snout 3.5 (3.27); width of snout above anterior end of 
mouth 4.5 (4.2); eye 1.5 (1.4); interorbital width 5 (4.67); upper jaw 
10.8 (10.1); lower jaw 13 (12.1); length of mouth cleft 8.5 (7.95); 



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180 FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY, VOLUME 39 

length of mucus channel above upper jaw 9 (8.4); tip of snout to 
ventral base 18.5 (17.3), to dorsal origin 28 (26.1), to vent 43.5 (40.6), 
to anal origin 46 (43.0); ventral base to vent 24 (22.4); length of 
vent 2 (1.87) ; length of pectoral 10 (9.35) ; length of ventral 7.7 (7.2). 

Body and tail slender, compressed, tail long and tapering. Great- 
est depth about halfway between dorsal origin and anal origin. 
Dorsal and anal confluent with caudal but caudal extending beyond 
them; accurate counts impossible without some damage to specimen. 
Origin of dorsal over about middle of pectoral. Anal origin below a 
vertical about 16 mm. behind dorsal origin. Vent just in front of 
anal, prominent, its length 2 mm., a small narrow papilla on poste- 
rior edge. Pectorals normal. Ventrals each with a single ray, their 
bases 1 mm. apart, situated below angle of preopercle. Scales minute, 
embedded, round, scarcely or not imbricated, covering body but not 
extending on vertical fins. Head naked except on cheeks and just 
behind eye. Lateral lines very indistinct, one low on body composed 
of forty-three slightly enlarged scales, beginning beneath pectoral 
base and extending well past anal origin; apparently two more rows 
of enlarged scales anteriorly, one on middle of body and one close to 
dorsal profile, these scarcely discernible. 

Head somewhat compressed but with snout depressed, broadened, 
somewhat rounded at tip, and projecting beyond mouth. Mouth in- 
ferior, moderately large, lower jaw included. Rami of upper jaw 
separated anteriorly by a space about 0.5 mm. wide. End of maxil- 
lary expanded, reaching well beyond eye. Teeth villiform, in narrow 
bands in jaws and on vomer and palatines. Posterior nostril on same 
level as, and 3.5 mm. in front of, eye; a minute spine above it. Ante- 
rior nostril on edge of depressed portion of snout, above anterior end 
of upper jaw, 2 mm. in front of posterior nostril. Eye small but dis- 
tinct, entirely covered by transparent skin, outlines of orbit not ap- 
parent. A long mucus channel extending above full length of upper 
jaw, giving the head a halosaurid-like appearance. Opercle with a 
single long, slender, sharp spine above, its tip curved upward, and 
four weak small spines on lower portion of posterior edge. Angle of 
preopercle with four or five similar small, weak spines. Nine well- 
developed gill-rakers on lower limb of first arch (including one at 
angle) and two rudiments. Upper limb with only two or three 
rudiments. 

Color. — Tail and upper half of trunk pale yellowish in formalin. 
Abdomen black. Head black except pale (translucent) snout. Pec- 
torals dusky, fins otherwise colorless. Peritoneum and inside of 
mouth and gill covers black. 



GREY: ABYSSAL BENTHIC FISHES 181 

Table 10. — Counts and Proportions of Penopua microphthalmus 
(Taken from the literature where indicated) 

Nybelin, 1957 Oregon 

, A ^ specimen 

Standard length 142 (type) 136 111 107 

Pectoral rays 18> — — 18 

Per cent of standard length 

Head length 20.07 20.74 20.27 22.4 

Snout to anal origin 39.8 41.48 ca. 42.7 43.0 

Per cent of distance between tip of snout and anal origin 

Head length 50.44 50.0 47.87 52.1 

Snout length 15.93 16.96 17.0 18.4 

Length of lower jaw 29.2 27.68 27.66 28.2 

Per cent of head length 

Length of snout 31.58 33.92 35.55 36.5 

Length of lower jaw 57.89 55.36 57.77 54.2 

' From Vaillant, 1888, p. 275. 



Remarks. — The similarity of this fish to Penopus macdonaldi is so 
great that it must be placed provisionally in the same genus in spite 
of differences in scalation and body width. This last character, as 
well as differences in the position of the ventral fins and the propor- 
tionate lengths of the eye and the upper jaw, necessitates a specific 
distinction. The non-imbricated scales of P. microphthalmus are 
reminiscent of those found in some zoarcid fishes, while in P. mac- 
donaldi the scales are apparently overlapping, although equally small. 
It is possible that the scalation of P. microphthalmus is a juvenile 
character. The specimen is otherwise very like P. macdonaldi, with 
which it shares the following characters : long, curved opercular spine, 
minute spination of preopercle and subopercle, a pair of minute nasal 
spines, and similar or identical bands of teeth, mucus canals, nostrils, 
and many body proportions. The head of Penopus was described as 
thick and scaly, but the figure of the type of P. macdonaldi (Goode 
and Bean, 1895, fig. 293) shows no scales on the head except, perhaps, 
on cheeks and opercles, indicating that the scalation of the head prob- 
ably is reduced as in P. microphthalmus. It should also be noted that 
the figure of P. macdonaldi shows a long mucus cavity above the 
upper jaw, similar to the structure so noticeable in the specimen at 
hand. 

The specimen described above was thought to be a new species 
until Nybelin (1957, pp. 287, 335) published the results of his re- 
examination of the type specimens of P. microphthalmus. The fig- 



182 FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY, VOLUME 39 

ures (Table 10) show that at least some of the proportional differ- 
ences between the types and the specimen at hand may be due to 
growth changes. A comparison of percentages calculated from meas- 
urements given in the type descriptljon (Vaillant, 1888, p. 275) shows 
the body to be considerably wider in the type (7.05 per cent of the 
standard length) and the distance between ventral bases and anus 
considerably longer (26.0 per cent) . These discrepancies are of con- 
siderable importance if they are not due to a difference in size, or to 
distortion after preservation, but the two forms are so similar other- 
wise that it seems imprudent to describe a new species based on a 
single small, soft-bodied specimen. A further discrepancy is seen in 
comparing the snout of our specimen with that of the type as figured 
by Vaillant (op. cit., pi. 24, fig. 4), in which it is shorter and much 
less "overhanging" than in the western Atlantic fish. However, the 
snout of the latter is soft and wrinkled, and its original outlines may 
well have differed from the present ones as shown in figure 28. 

Distribution. — Previously known from only three specimens taken 
by the personnel of the Talisman off Cape Verde, North Africa, in 
3200 meters. 



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1924. Seventh report on the fishes of the Irish Atlantic slope. The macrurid 
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Fowler, H. W. 

1934. Descriptions of new fishes obtained 1907 to 1910, chiefly in the Philippine 
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Garman, S. 

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Gilbert, C. H. 

1890. A preliminary report on the fishes collected by the steamer Albatross on 
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Gilchrist, J. D. F. 

1906. Descriptions of fifteen new South African fishes, with notes on other 
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GOODE, G. B., and Bean, T. H. 

1895. Oceanic Ichthyology. Smiths. Contr. Knowl., 981, 982, xxxv4-553 pp., 
417 figs. 



GREY: ABYSSAL BENTHIC FISHES 183 

Grey, Marion 

1956. The distribution of fishes found below a depth of 2000 meters. Fieldiana, 
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GOnther, a. 

1887. Report on the deep-sea fishes. Report on the scientific results of the 
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Jordan, D. S., and Evermann, B. W. 

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Koefoed, E. 

1927. Pushes from the sea bottom. Rep. Sci. Res. M. Sars No. Atl. Deep-sea 
Exp. 1910, 4, (1), 147 pp., 6 pis., 55 text figs. Bergen. 

Lloyd, R. E. 

1906. Notes on the skull of the genus Aulastomatomorpha, with descriptions of 

some new deep-sea fish. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), 18: 306-311, text fig. 
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Norman, J. R. 

1939. Fishes. Sci. Rep. John Murray Exp. 1933-34, 7, (1), 116 pp., 41 figs. 

Nybelin, O. 

1946. Notice pr^liminaire sur quelques especes nouvelles de poissons. Ark. 

Zool., 38B, (2), 6 pp., 4 figs. 
1948. Fishes collected by the Skagerak Expedition in the eastern Atlantic, 1946. 

Goteborgs K. Vetensk. Vitt.-Samh. Handl., (B), 5, (16), pp. 1-95, 6 pis., 

9 text figs. 

1957. Deep-sea bottom fishes. Rep. Swedish Deep-sea Exp., 2, Zool., 20: 
249-345, 7 pis., 50 text figs. 

Parr, A. E. 

1928. Scientific results of the Third Oceanographic Expedition of the Pawnee, 
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and Bermuda Islands. . . . Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., 3, (3), 193 pp., 
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1951. Preliminary revision of the Alepocephalidae, with the introduction of a 
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1952. Revision of the species currently referred to Alepocephaliis, Halisauriceps, 
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Vaillant, L. 

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I.